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2018年香港国际仲裁中心仲裁规则(英文本)
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【文书性质】仲裁规则
【文书编号】
【发布机构】 香港国际仲裁中心
【案件类型】
【发布日期】 2018年11月01日
【裁判人员】
【代理律师】
【当 事 人】
【国 别】 中国
【主 题】 仲裁规则 HKIAC
【案件摘要】 2018 HKIAC Administered Arbitration Rules
【全文】         

SECTION I.  GENERAL RULES

Article 1 – Scope of Application
1.1 These Rules shall govern arbitrations where an arbitration agreement (whether entered into before or after a dispute has arisen) either: (a) provides for these Rules to apply; or (b) subject to Articles 1.3 and 1.4 below, provides for arbitration “administered by HKIAC” or words to similar effect.

1.2 By agreeing to arbitration in accordance with Article 1.1, the parties accept that the arbitration shall be administered by HKIAC.

1.3 Nothing in these Rules shall prevent parties to a dispute or arbitration agreement from naming HKIAC as appointing authority, or from requesting certain administrative services from HKIAC, without subjecting the arbitration to the provisions contained in these Rules. For the avoidance of doubt, these Rules shall not govern arbitrations where an arbitration agreement provides for arbitration under other rules, including other rules adopted by HKIAC from time to time.

1.4  Subject to Article 1.5, these Rules shall come into force on 1 November 2018 and, unless the parties have agreed otherwise, shall apply to all arbitrations falling within Article 1.1 in which the Notice of Arbitration is submitted on or after that date.

1.5  Unless otherwise agreed by the parties: (a) Article 43 and paragraphs 1(a) and 21 of Schedule 4 shall not apply if the arbitration agreement was concluded before the date on which these Rules came into force; and (b) Articles 23.1, 28, 29 and Schedule 4 shall not apply if the arbitration agreement was concluded before 1 November 2013.


Article 2 – Interpretation of Rules
2.1 HKIAC shall have the power to interpret all provisions of these Rules. The arbitral tribunal shall interpret the Rules insofar as they relate to its powers and duties hereunder. In the event of any inconsistency between such interpretation and any interpretation by HKIAC, the arbitral tribunal's interpretation shall prevail.

2.2 HKIAC has no obligation to give reasons for any decision it makes in respect of any arbitration commenced under these Rules. Unless otherwise determined by HKIAC, all decisions made by HKIAC under these Rules are final and, to the extent permitted by any applicable law, not subject to appeal.

2.3 Where the parties have designated an HKIAC body or person to perform a function that is delegated to HKIAC under the Rules, that function shall be performed by HKIAC.

2.4 References to "HKIAC" are to the Council of HKIAC or any other body or person designated by it to perform the functions referred to herein, or, where applicable, to the Secretary-General of HKIAC and other staff members of the Secretariat of HKIAC.

2.5 References to "Claimant" include one or more claimants.

2.6 References to "Respondent" include one or more respondents.

2.7 References to "additional party" include one or more additional parties and references to "party" or "parties" include Claimant, Respondent and/or an additional party.

2.8 References to the "arbitral tribunal" include one or more arbitrators. Except in Schedule 2, such references do not include an emergency arbitrator.

2.9 References to "witness" include one or more witnesses and references to "expert" include one or more experts.

2.10 References to "claim" or "counterclaim" include any claim or claims by any party against any other party. References to "defence" include any defence or defences by any party to any claim or counterclaim submitted by any other party, including any defence for the purpose of a set-off or cross-claim.

2.11 References to “arbitration agreement” include one or more arbitration agreements.

2.12 References to “language” include one or more languages.

2.13 References to "award" include, inter alia, an interim, interlocutory, partial or final award, save for any award made by an emergency arbitrator.

2.14 References to the "seat" of arbitration mean the place of arbitration as defined in Article 20.1 of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.

2.15 References to “written communications” include all notifications, proposals, pleadings, statements, documents, orders and awards that are produced, submitted or exchanged in the arbitration.

2.16 References to “communication” mean delivery, transmission or notification of a written communication by hand, registered post, courier service, facsimile, email or other means of telecommunication that provides a record of transmission.

2.17 These Rules include all Schedules attached thereto, as amended from time to time by HKIAC, in force on the date the Notice of Arbitration is submitted.

2.18 HKIAC may from time to time issue practice notes and guidelines to supplement, regulate and implement these Rules for the purpose of facilitating the administration of arbitrations governed by these Rules

2.19 English is the original language of these Rules. In the event of any discrepancy or inconsistency between the English version and the version in any other language, the English version shall prevail.


Article 3 – Written Communications and Calculation of Time Limits
3.1 Any written communication pursuant to these Rules shall be deemed to be received by a party, arbitrator, emergency arbitrator or HKIAC if:

(a) communicated to the address, facsimile number and/or email address communicated by the addressee or its representative in the arbitration; or

(b) in the absence of (a), communicated to the address, facsimile number and/or email address specified in any applicable agreement between the parties; or

(c) in the absence of (a) and (b), communicated to any address, facsimile number and/or email address which the addressee holds out to the world at the time of such communication; or

(d) in the absence of (a), (b) and (c), communicated to any last known address, facsimile number and/or email address of the addressee; or

(e) uploaded to any secured online repository that the parties have agreed to use.

3.2 If, after reasonable efforts, communication cannot be effected in accordance with Article 3.1, a written communication is deemed to have been received if it is sent to the addressee’s last-known address, facsimile number and/or email address by means that provides a record of attempted communication.

3.3 Any written communication shall be deemed received on the earliest day when it is communicated pursuant to paragraph 3.1(a) to (d), uploaded pursuant to paragraph 3.1(e), or attempted to be communicated pursuant to Article 3.2. For this purpose, the date shall be determined according to the local time at the place of receiving such written communication or a notice of the upload pursuant to paragraph 3.1(e).

3.4 Where a written communication is being communicated to more than one party, or more than one arbitrator, such written communication shall be deemed received when it is communicated pursuant to Article 3.1(a) to (d), or attempted to be communicated pursuant to Article 3.2, to the last intended recipient, or when a notice that such written communication has been uploaded pursuant to Article 3.1(e) is communicated to the last intended recipient.

3.5 Time limits under these Rules shall begin to run on the day following the day when any written communication is received or deemed received. If the last day of the time limit is an official holiday or a non-business day at the place of receipt, the time limit shall be extended until the first business day which follows. Official holidays or non-business days occurring during the running of the time limit shall be included in calculating the time limit.

3.6 If the circumstances of the case so justify, HKIAC may amend the time limits provided for in these Rules, as well as any time limits that it has set, whether any such time limits have expired. HKIAC shall not amend any time limits agreed by the parties or set by the arbitral tribunal or emergency arbitrator unless the parties agree or the arbitral tribunal or emergency arbitrator directs otherwise.

 

SECTION II.  COMMENCEMENT OF THE ARBITRATION


Article 4 – Notice of Arbitration
4.1 The party initiating arbitration (the "Claimant") shall communicate a Notice of Arbitration to HKIAC and the other party (the "Respondent").

4.2 An arbitration shall be deemed to commence on the date on which a copy of the Notice of Arbitration is received by HKIAC. For the avoidance of doubt, this date shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Articles 3.1 to 3.5.

4.3 The Notice of Arbitration shall include the following:

(a) a request that the dispute be referred to arbitration;

(b) the names and (in so far as known) the addresses, facsimile numbers and/or email addresses of the parties and of their representatives;

(c) a copy of the arbitration agreement invoked;

(d) a copy of the contract (s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which the dispute arises, or reference thereto;

(e) a description of the general nature of the claim and an indication of the amount involved, if any;

(f) the relief or remedy sought;

(g) a proposal as to the number of arbitrators (i.e. one or three), if the parties have not previously agreed thereon;

(h) the Claimant's proposal and any comments regarding the designation of a sole arbitrator under Article 7, or the Claimant's designation of an arbitrator under Article 8;

(i) the existence of any funding agreement and the identity of any third party funder pursuant to Article 44; and

(j) confirmation that copies of the Notice of Arbitration and any supporting materials included with it have been or are being communicated simultaneously to the Respondent by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

4.4 The Notice of Arbitration shall be accompanied by payment to HKIAC of the Registration Fee as required by Schedule 1

4.5 The Notice of Arbitration may include the Statement of Claim.

4.6 If the Notice of Arbitration does not comply with these Rules or if the Registration Fee is not paid, HKIAC may request the Claimant to remedy the defect within an appropriate time limit. If the Claimant complies with such directions within the applicable time limit, the arbitration shall be deemed to have commenced under Article 4.2 on the date the initial version was received by HKIAC. If the Claimant fails to comply, the arbitration shall be deemed not to have commenced under Article 4.2 without prejudice to the Claimant's right to submit the same claim at a later date in a subsequent Notice of Arbitration.

4.7 Where an amendment is made to the Notice of Arbitration prior to the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, HKIAC has discretion to determine whether and to what extent such amendment affects other time limits under the Rules.

4.8 The Claimant shall notify, and lodge documentary verification with, HKIAC of the date the Respondent receives the Notice of Arbitration and any supporting materials included with it.

Article 5 – Answer to the Notice of Arbitration
5.1 Within 30 days from receipt of the Notice of Arbitration, the Respondent shall communicate an Answer to the Notice of Arbitration to HKIAC and the Claimant. The Answer to the Notice of Arbitration shall include the following:

(a) the name, address, facsimile number, and/or email address of the Respondent and of its representatives (if different from the description contained in the Notice of Arbitration);

(b) any plea that an arbitral tribunal constituted under these Rules lacks jurisdiction;

(c) the Respondent's comments on the particulars set forth in the Notice of Arbitration, pursuant to Article 4.3(e);

(d) the Respondent's answer to the relief or remedy sought in the Notice of Arbitration, pursuant to Article 4.3(f);

(e) the Respondent's proposal as to the number of arbitrators (i.e. one or three), if the parties have not previously agreed thereon;

(f) the Respondent’s proposal and any comments regarding the designation of a sole arbitrator under Article 7 or the Respondent's designation of an arbitrator under Article 8;

(g) the existence of any funding agreement and the identity of any third party funder pursuant to Article 44; and

(h) confirmation that copies of the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration and any supporting materials included with it have been or are being communicated simultaneously to all other parties to the arbitration by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.
 

5.2 The Answer to the Notice of Arbitration may also include the Statement of Defence, if the Notice of Arbitration contained the Statement of Claim.

5.3 Any counterclaim, set-off defence or cross-claim shall, to the extent possible, be raised with the Respondent's Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, which should include in relation to any such counterclaim, set-off defence or cross-claim:

(a) a copy of the contract (s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which it arises, or reference thereto;

(b) a description of the general nature of the counterclaim, set-off defence and/or cross-claim, and an indication of the amount involved, if any; and

(c) the relief or remedy sought.

5.4 HKIAC shall transmit the case file to the arbitral tribunal as soon as it has been constituted, provided that any deposit requested by HKIAC has been paid, unless HKIAC determines otherwise.

 

SECTION III.  THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL


Article 6 – Number of Arbitrators
6.1 If the parties have not agreed upon the number of arbitrators before the arbitration commences or within 30 days from the date the Notice of Arbitration is received by the Respondent, HKIAC shall decide whether the case shall be referred to a sole arbitrator or to three arbitrators, taking into account the circumstances of the case.


6.2 Where a case is conducted under an Expedited Procedure in accordance with Article 42, the provisions of Article 42.2(a) and (b) shall apply.


Article 7 – Appointment of a Sole Arbitrator
7.1 Unless the parties have agreed otherwise:

(a) where the parties have agreed before the arbitration commences that the dispute shall be referred to a sole arbitrator, they shall jointly designate the sole arbitrator within 30 days from the date the Notice of Arbitration was received by the Respondent.

(b) where the parties have agreed after the arbitration commences to refer the dispute to a sole arbitrator, they shall jointly designate the sole arbitrator within 15 days from the date of that agreement.

(c) where the parties have not agreed upon the number of arbitrators and HKIAC has decided that the dispute shall be referred to a sole arbitrator, the parties shall jointly designate the sole arbitrator within 15 days from the date HKIAC's decision was received by the last of them.

7.2 If the parties fail to designate the sole arbitrator within the applicable time limit, HKIAC shall appoint the sole arbitrator.

7.3 Where the parties have agreed on a different procedure for designating the sole arbitrator and such procedure does not result in a designation within a time limit agreed by the parties or set by HKIAC, HKIAC shall appoint the sole arbitrator.

Article 8 – Appointment of Three Arbitrators
8.1 Where a dispute between two parties is referred to three arbitrators, the arbitral tribunal shall be constituted as follows, unless the parties have agreed otherwise:

(a) where the parties have agreed before the arbitration commences that the dispute shall be referred to three arbitrators, each party shall designate in the Notice of Arbitration and the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, respectively, one arbitrator. If either party fails to designate an arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitrator.

(b) where the parties have agreed after the arbitration commences to refer the dispute to three arbitrators, the Claimant shall designate an arbitrator within 15 days from the date of that agreement, and the Respondent shall designate an arbitrator within 15 days from receiving notice of the Claimant’s designation. If a party fails to designate an arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitrator.

(c) where the parties have not agreed upon the number of arbitrators and HKIAC has decided that the dispute shall be referred to three arbitrators, the Claimant shall designate an arbitrator within 15 days from receipt of HKIAC's decision, and the Respondent shall designate an arbitrator within 15 days from receiving notice of the Claimant’s designation. If a party fails to designate an arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitrator.

(d) the two arbitrators so appointed shall designate a third arbitrator, who shall act as the presiding arbitrator. Failing such designation within 30 days from the confirmation or appointment of the second arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the presiding arbitrator.

8.2 Where there are more than two parties to the arbitration and the dispute is to be referred to three arbitrators, the arbitral tribunal shall be constituted as follows, unless the parties have agreed otherwise:

(a) the Claimant or group of Claimants shall designate an arbitrator and the Respondent or group of Respondents shall designate an arbitrator in accordance with the procedure in Article 8.1(a), (b) or (c), as applicable;

(b) if the parties have designated arbitrators in accordance with Article 8.2(a), the procedure in Article 8.1(d) shall apply to the designation of the presiding arbitrator;

(c) in the event of any failure to designate arbitrators under Article 8.2(a) or if the parties do not all agree that they represent two separate sides (as Claimant and Respondent respectively) for the purposes of designating arbitrators, HKIAC may appoint all members of the arbitral tribunal with or without regard to any party’s designation.

8.3 Where the parties have agreed on a different procedure for designating three arbitrators and such procedure does not result in the designation of an arbitrator within a time limit agreed by the parties or set by HKIAC, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitrator.


Article 9 – Confirmation of the Arbitral Tribunal
9.1 All designations of any arbitrator, whether made by the parties or the arbitrators, are subject to confirmation by HKIAC, upon which the appointments shall become effective.

9.2 Where the parties have agreed that an arbitrator is to be appointed by one or more of the parties or by the arbitrators already confirmed or appointed, that agreement shall be deemed an agreement to designate an arbitrator under the Rules.

9.3 The designation of an arbitrator shall be confirmed taking into account any agreement by the parties as to an arbitrator’s qualifications, any information provided under Article 11.4, and in accordance with Article 10.

Article 10 – Fees and Expenses of the Arbitral Tribunal
10.1 The fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal shall be determined according to either:

(a) an hourly rate in accordance with Schedule 2; or

(b) the schedule of fees based on the sum in dispute in accordance with Schedule 3.

The parties shall agree the method for determining the fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal, and shall inform HKIAC of the applicable method within 30 days of the date on which the Respondent receives the Notice of Arbitration. If the parties fail to agree on the applicable method, the arbitral tribunal's fees and expenses shall be determined in accordance with Schedule 2.

10.2 Where the fees of the arbitral tribunal are to be determined in accordance with Schedule 2,

(a) the applicable rate for each co-arbitrator shall be the rate agreed between that co-arbitrator and the designating party;

(b) the applicable rate for a sole or presiding arbitrator designated by the parties or the co-arbitrators, as applicable, shall be the rate agreed between that arbitrator and the parties,

subject to paragraphs 9.3 to 9.5 of Schedule 2. Where the rate of an arbitrator is not agreed in accordance with Article 10.2(a) or (b), or where HKIAC appoints an arbitrator, HKIAC shall determine the rate of that arbitrator.

10.3 Where the fees of the arbitral tribunal are determined in accordance with Schedule 3, HKIAC shall fix the fees in accordance with that Schedule and the following rules:

(a) the fees of the arbitral tribunal shall be reasonable in amount, taking into account the amount in dispute, the complexity of the subject-matter, the time spent by the arbitral tribunal and any secretary appointed under Article 13.4, and any other circumstances of the case, including, but not limited to, the discontinuation of the arbitration in case of settlement or for any other reason;

(b) where a case is referred to three arbitrators, HKIAC, at its discretion, shall have the right to increase the total fees up to a maximum which shall normally not exceed three times the fees of a sole arbitrator;

(c) the arbitral tribunal's fees may exceed the amounts calculated in accordance with Schedule 3 where, in the opinion of HKIAC, there are exceptional circumstances, which include, but are not limited to, the parties conducting the arbitration in a manner not reasonably contemplated at the time when the arbitral tribunal was constituted.


Article 11 – Qualifications and Challenge of the Arbitral Tribunal
11.1 An arbitral tribunal confirmed under these Rules shall be and remain at all times impartial and independent of the parties.

11.2 Subject to Article 11.3, as a general rule, where the parties to an arbitration under these Rules are of different nationalities, a sole or presiding arbitrator shall not have the same nationality as any party unless specifically agreed otherwise by all parties.

11.3 Notwithstanding the general rule in Article 11.2, in appropriate circumstances and provided that none of the parties objects within a time limit set by HKIAC, a sole or presiding arbitrator may be of the same nationality as any of the parties.

11.4 Before confirmation or appointment, a prospective arbitrator shall (a) sign a statement confirming his or her availability to decide the dispute and his or her impartiality and independence; and (b) disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his or her impartiality or independence. An arbitrator, once confirmed or appointed and throughout the arbitration, shall disclose without delay any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been informed by him or her of these circumstances.

11.5 No party or its representatives shall have any ex parte communication relating to the arbitration with any arbitrator, or with any candidate to be designated as arbitrator by a party, except to advise the candidate of the general nature of the dispute, to discuss the candidate's qualifications, availability, impartiality or independence, or to discuss the suitability of candidates for the designation of a third arbitrator where the parties or party-designated arbitrators are to designate that arbitrator. No party or its representatives shall have any ex parte communication relating to the arbitration with any candidate for the presiding arbitrator.

11.6 Any arbitrator may be challenged if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator's impartiality or independence, or if the arbitrator does not possess qualifications agreed by the parties, or if the arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his or her functions or for other reasons fails to act without undue delay. A party may challenge the arbitrator designated by it or in whose appointment it has participated only for reasons of which it becomes aware after the designation has been made.

11.7 A party that intends to challenge an arbitrator shall send notice of its challenge within 15 days after the confirmation or appointment of that arbitrator has been communicated to the challenging party or within 15 days after that party became aware of the circumstances mentioned in Article 11.6.

11.8 The notice of challenge shall be communicated to HKIAC, all other parties, the challenged arbitrator and any other members of the arbitral tribunal. The notice of challenge shall state the reasons for the challenge.

11.9 Unless the arbitrator being challenged resigns or the non-challenging party agrees to the challenge within 15 days from receiving the notice of challenge, HKIAC shall decide on the challenge. Pending the determination of the challenge, the arbitral tribunal (including the challenged arbitrator) may continue the arbitration.

11.10 If an arbitrator resigns or a party agrees to a challenge under Article 11.9, no acceptance of the validity of any ground referred to in Article 11.6 shall be implied.

Article 12 – Replacement of an Arbitrator
12.1 Subject to Articles 12.2, 27.13 and 28.8, where an arbitrator dies, has been successfully challenged, has been otherwise removed or has resigned, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed pursuant to the rules that were applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced. These rules shall apply even if, during the process of appointing the arbitrator being replaced, a party had failed to exercise its right to designate or to participate in the appointment.

12.2 If, at the request of a party, HKIAC determines that, in view of the exceptional circumstances of the case, it would be justified for a party to be deprived of its right to designate a substitute arbitrator, HKIAC may, after giving an opportunity to the parties and the remaining arbitrators to express their views:

  1. (a) appoint the substitute arbitrator; or
     
  2. (b) authorise the other arbitrators to proceed with the arbitration and make any decision or award.

12.3 If an arbitrator is replaced, the arbitration shall resume at the stage where the arbitrator was replaced or ceased to perform his or her functions, unless the arbitral tribunal decides otherwise.

 

SECTION IV.  CONDUCT OF ARBITRATION


Article 13 – General Provisions
13.1 Subject to these Rules, the arbitral tribunal shall adopt suitable procedures for the conduct of the arbitration in order to avoid unnecessary delay or expense, having regard to the complexity of the issues, the amount in dispute and the effective use of technology, and provided that such procedures ensure equal treatment of the parties and afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to present their case.

13.2 At an early stage of the arbitration and in consultation with the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall prepare a provisional timetable for the arbitration, which shall be provided to the parties and HKIAC.

13.3 Subject to Article 11.5, all written communications between any party and the arbitral tribunal shall be communicated to all other parties and HKIAC.

13.4 The arbitral tribunal may, after consulting with the parties, appoint a secretary. The secretary shall remain at all times impartial and independent of the parties and shall disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his or her impartiality or independence prior to his or her appointment. A secretary, once appointed and throughout the arbitration, shall disclose without delay any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been informed by him or her of these circumstances.

13.5 The arbitral tribunal and the parties shall do everything necessary to ensure the fair and efficient conduct of the arbitration.

13.6 The parties may be represented by persons of their choice, subject to Article 13.5. The names, addresses, facsimile numbers and/or email addresses of party representatives shall be communicated to all other parties, HKIAC, any emergency arbitrator, and the arbitral tribunal once constituted. The arbitral tribunal, emergency arbitrator or HKIAC may require proof of authority of any party representatives.

13.7 After the arbitral tribunal is constituted, any change or addition by a party to its legal representatives shall be communicated promptly to all other parties, the arbitral tribunal and HKIAC.

13.8 Where the parties agree to pursue other means of settling their dispute after the arbitration commences, HKIAC, the arbitral tribunal or emergency arbitrator may, at the request of any party, suspend the arbitration or Emergency Arbitrator Procedure, as applicable, on such terms as it considers appropriate. The arbitration or Emergency Arbitrator Procedure shall resume at the request of any party to HKIAC, the arbitral tribunal or emergency arbitrator.

13.9 In all matters not expressly provided for in these Rules, HKIAC, the arbitral tribunal, emergency arbitrator and the parties shall act in the spirit of these Rules.

13.10 The arbitral tribunal or emergency arbitrator shall make every reasonable effort to ensure that an award is valid.

Article 14 – Seat and Venue of the Arbitration
14.1 The parties may agree on the seat of arbitration. Where there is no agreement as to the seat, the seat of arbitration shall be Hong Kong, unless the arbitral tribunal determines, having regard to the circumstances of the case, that another seat is more appropriate.

14.2 Unless the parties have agreed otherwise, the arbitral tribunal may meet at any location outside of the seat of arbitration which it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, hearing witnesses, experts or the parties, or the inspection of goods, other property or documents. The arbitration shall nonetheless be treated for all purposes as an arbitration conducted at the seat.

Article 15 – Language
15.1 The arbitration shall be conducted in the language of the arbitration. Where the parties have not previously agreed on such language, any party shall communicate in English or Chinese prior to any determination by the arbitral tribunal under Article 15.2.

15.2 Subject to agreement by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall, promptly after its constitution, determine the language of the arbitration. This determination shall apply to all written communications and the language to be used in any hearing.

15.3 The arbitral tribunal may order that any supporting materials submitted in their original language shall be accompanied by a translation, in whole or in part, into the language of the arbitration as agreed by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal.

Article 16 – Statement of Claim
16.1 Unless the Statement of Claim was contained in the Notice of Arbitration (or the Claimant elects to treat the Notice of Arbitration as the Statement of Claim), the Claimant shall communicate its Statement of Claim to all other parties and to the arbitral tribunal within a time limit to be determined by the arbitral tribunal.

16.2 The Statement of Claim shall include the following particulars:

(a) a statement of the facts supporting the claim;

(b) the points at issue;

(c) the legal arguments supporting the claim; and

(d) the relief or remedy sought.

16.3 The Claimant shall annex to its Statement of Claim all supporting materials on which it relies.

16.4 The arbitral tribunal may vary any of the requirements in Article 16 as it deems appropriate.

Article 17 – Statement of Defence
17.1 Unless the Statement of Defence was contained in the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration (or the Respondent elects to treat the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration as the Statement of Defence), the Respondent shall communicate its Statement of Defence to all other parties and to the arbitral tribunal within a time limit to be determined by the arbitral tribunal.

17.2 The Statement of Defence shall reply to the particulars of the Statement of Claim (set out in Article 16.2(a) to (c)). If the Respondent has raised an objection to the jurisdiction or to the proper constitution of the arbitral tribunal, the Statement of Defence shall contain the factual and legal basis of such objection.

17.3 Where there is a counterclaim, set-off defence or cross-claim, the Statement of Defence shall also include the following particulars:

(a) a statement of the facts supporting the counterclaim, set-off defence or cross-claim;

(b) the points at issue;

(c) the legal arguments supporting the counterclaim, set-off defence or cross-claim; and

(d) the relief or remedy sought.

17.4 The Respondent shall annex to its Statement of Defence all supporting materials on which it relies.

17.5 The arbitral tribunal may vary any of the requirements in Article 17 as it deems appropriate.

Article 18 – Amendments to the Claim or Defence
18.1 During the course of the arbitration, a party may amend or supplement its claim or defence, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow such amendment having regard to the circumstances of the case. However, a claim or defence may not be amended in such a manner that the amended claim or defence falls outside the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal.

18.2 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal's fees (where appropriate) if a party amends its claim or defence.

Article 19 – Jurisdiction of the Arbitral Tribunal
19.1 The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction under these Rules, including any objections with respect to the existence, validity or scope of the arbitration agreement.

19.2 The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to determine the existence or validity of any contract of which an arbitration agreement forms a part. For the purposes of Article 19, an arbitration agreement which forms part of a contract, and which provides for arbitration under these Rules, shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract. A decision by the arbitral tribunal that the contract is null and void shall not necessarily entail the invalidity of the arbitration agreement.

19.3 A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised if possible in the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, and shall be raised no later than in the Statement of Defence, or, with respect to a counterclaim, in the Defence to the Counterclaim. A party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact that it has designated or appointed, or participated in the designation or appointment of, an arbitrator. A plea that the arbitral tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitration. The arbitral tribunal may, in either case, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified.

19.4 Subject to Article 19.5, if a question arises as to:

(a) the existence, validity or scope of the arbitration agreement; or

(b) whether all of the claims have been properly made in a single arbitration pursuant to Article 29; or

(c) the competence of HKIAC to administer an arbitration;

before the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, the arbitration shall proceed and any such question shall be decided by the arbitral tribunal once constituted.

19.5 The arbitration shall proceed only if and to the extent that HKIAC is satisfied, prima facie, that an arbitration agreement under the Rules may exist or the arbitration has been properly commenced under Article 29. Any question as to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal shall be decided by the arbitral tribunal once constituted, pursuant to Article 19.1.

19.6 HKIAC’s decision pursuant to Article 19.5 is without prejudice to the admissibility or merits of any party’s claim or defence.

Article 20 – Further Written Statements
The arbitral tribunal shall decide which further written statements, if any, in addition to the Statement of Claim and the Statement of Defence, shall be required from the parties and shall set the time limits for communicating such statements.

Article 21 – Time Limits
21.1 The time limits set by the arbitral tribunal for the communication of written statements should not exceed 45 days, unless the arbitral tribunal considers otherwise.

21.2 The arbitral tribunal may, even in circumstances where the relevant time limit has expired, extend time limits where it concludes that an extension is justified.

Article 22 – Evidence and Hearings
22.1 Each party shall have the burden of proving the facts relied on to support its claim or defence.

22.2 The arbitral tribunal shall determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence, including whether to apply strict rules of evidence.

22.3 At any time during the arbitration, the arbitral tribunal may allow or require a party to produce documents, exhibits or other evidence that the arbitral tribunal determines to be relevant to the case and material to its outcome. The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to admit or exclude any documents, exhibits or other evidence.

22.4 The arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to hold hearings for presenting evidence or for oral arguments, or whether the arbitration shall be conducted solely on the basis of documents and other materials. The arbitral tribunal shall hold such hearings at an appropriate stage of the arbitration, if so requested by a party or if it considers fit. In the event of a hearing, the arbitral tribunal shall give the parties adequate advance notice of the relevant date, time and place.

22.5 The arbitral tribunal may determine the manner in which a witness or expert is examined.

22.6 The arbitral tribunal may make directions for the translation of oral statements made at a hearing and for a record of the hearing if it deems that either is necessary in the circumstances of the case.

22.7 Hearings shall be held in private unless the parties agree otherwise. The arbitral tribunal may require any witness or expert to leave the hearing room at any time during the hearing.

Article 23 – Interim Measures of Protection and Emergency Relief
23.1 A party may apply for urgent interim or conservatory relief ("Emergency Relief") prior to the constitution of the arbitral tribunal pursuant to Schedule 4.

23.2 At the request of either party, the arbitral tribunal may order any interim measures it deems necessary or appropriate.

23.3 An interim measure, whether in the form of an order or award or in another form, is any temporary measure ordered by the arbitral tribunal at any time before it issues the award by which the dispute is finally decided, that a party, for example and without limitation:

(a) maintain or restore the status quo pending determination of the dispute; or

(b) take action that would prevent, or refrain from taking action that is likely to cause, current or imminent harm or prejudice to the arbitral process itself; or

(c) provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award may be satisfied; or

(d) preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to the resolution of the dispute.

23.4 When deciding a party's request for an interim measure under Article 23.2, the arbitral tribunal shall take into account the circumstances of the case. Relevant factors may include, but are not limited to:

(a) harm not adequately reparable by an award of damages is likely to result if the measure is not ordered, and such harm substantially outweighs the harm that is likely to result to the party against whom the measure is directed if the measure is granted; and

(b) there is a reasonable possibility that the requesting party will succeed on the merits of the claim. The determination on this possibility shall not affect the discretion of the arbitral tribunal in making any subsequent determination.

23.5 The arbitral tribunal may modify, suspend or terminate an interim measure it has granted, upon application of any party or, in exceptional circumstances and upon prior notice to the parties, on the arbitral tribunal’s own initiative.

23.6 The arbitral tribunal may require the party requesting an interim measure to provide appropriate security in connection with the measure.

23.7 The arbitral tribunal may require any party promptly to disclose any material change in the circumstances on the basis of which an interim measure was requested or granted.

23.8 The party requesting an interim measure may be liable for any costs and damages caused by the measure to any party if the arbitral tribunal later determines that, in the circumstances then prevailing, the measure should not have been granted. The arbitral tribunal may award such costs and damages at any point during the arbitration.

23.9 A request for interim measures addressed by any party to a competent authority shall not be deemed incompatible with the arbitration agreement, or as a waiver thereof.

Article 24 – Security for Costs
The arbitral tribunal may make an order requiring a party to provide security for the costs of the arbitration.

Article 25 – Tribunal-Appointed Experts
25.1 To assist it in the assessment of evidence, the arbitral tribunal, after consulting with the parties, may appoint one or more experts. Such expert shall report to the arbitral tribunal, in writing, on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal. After consulting with the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall establish terms of reference for the expert, and shall communicate a copy of the expert’s terms of reference to the parties and HKIAC.

25.2 The parties shall give the expert any relevant information or produce for his or her inspection any relevant documents or goods that he or she may require of them. Any dispute between a party and such expert as to the relevance of the required information or production shall be referred to the arbitral tribunal for decision.

25.3 Upon receipt of the expert’s report, the arbitral tribunal shall send a copy of the report to the parties who shall be given the opportunity to express their opinions on the report. The parties shall be entitled to examine any document on which the expert has relied in his or her report.

25.4 At the request of either party, the expert, after delivering the report, shall attend a hearing at which the parties shall have the opportunity to be present and to examine the expert. At this hearing either party may present experts in order to testify on the points at issue. The provisions of Articles 22.2 to 22.7 shall be applicable to such proceedings.

25.5 The provisions of Article 11 shall apply by analogy to any expert appointed by the arbitral tribunal.

Article 26 – Default
26.1 If, within the time limit set by the arbitral tribunal, the Claimant has failed to communicate its written statement without showing sufficient cause for such failure, the arbitral tribunal may terminate the arbitration unless another party has brought a claim and wishes the arbitration to continue, in which case the tribunal may proceed with the arbitration in respect of the other party’s claim.

26.2 If, within the time limit set by the arbitral tribunal, the Respondent has failed to communicate its written statement without showing sufficient cause for such failure, the arbitral tribunal may proceed with the arbitration.

26.3 If one of the parties, duly notified under these Rules, fails to present its case in accordance with these Rules including as directed by the arbitral tribunal,  without showing sufficient cause for such failure, the arbitral tribunal may proceed with the arbitration and make an award on the basis of the evidence before it.

Article 27 – Joinder of Additional Parties
27.1 The arbitral tribunal or, where the arbitral tribunal is not yet constituted, HKIAC shall have the power to allow an additional party to be joined to the arbitration provided that:

(a) prima facie, the additional party is bound by an arbitration agreement under these Rules giving rise to the arbitration, including any arbitration under Article 28 or 29; or

(b) all parties, including the additional party, expressly agree.

27.2 Any decision pursuant to Article 27.1 is without prejudice to the arbitral tribunal’s power to decide any question as to its jurisdiction arising from such decision.

27.3 Any Request for Joinder shall be raised no later than in the Statement of Defence, except in exceptional circumstances.

27.4 Before the arbitral tribunal is constituted, a party wishing to join an additional party to the arbitration shall communicate a Request for Joinder to HKIAC, all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators.

27.5 After the arbitral tribunal is constituted, a party wishing to join an additional party to the arbitration shall communicate a Request for Joinder to the arbitral tribunal, HKIAC and all other parties.

27.6 The Request for Joinder shall include the following:

(a) the case reference of the existing arbitration;

(b) the names and addresses, facsimile numbers and/or email addresses, if known, of each of the parties, including the additional party, their representatives and any arbitrators who have been confirmed or appointed in the arbitration;

(c) a request that the additional party be joined to the arbitration;

(d) a copy of the contract (s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which the request arises, or reference thereto;

(e) a statement of the facts supporting the request;

(f) the points at issue;

(g) the legal arguments supporting the request;

(h) any relief or remedy sought;

(i) the existence of any funding agreement and the identity of any third party funder pursuant to Article 44; and

(j) confirmation that copies of the Request for Joinder and any supporting materials included with it have been or are being communicated simultaneously to all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

27.7 Within 15 days of receiving the Request for Joinder, the additional party shall communicate an Answer to the Request for Joinder to HKIAC, all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators. The Answer to the Request for Joinder shall include the following:

(a) the name, address, facsimile number and/or email address of the additional party and its representatives (if different from the description contained in the Request for Joinder);

(b) any plea that the arbitral tribunal has been improperly constituted and/or lacks jurisdiction over the additional party;

(c) the additional party's comments on the particulars set forth in the Request for Joinder pursuant to Article 27.6(a) to (g);

(d) the additional party's answer to any relief or remedy sought in the Request for Joinder, pursuant to Article 27.6(h);

(e) details of any claims by the additional party against any other party to the arbitration;

(f) the existence of any funding agreement entered into by the additional party and the identity of any third party funder pursuant to Article 44; and

(g) confirmation that copies of the Answer to the Request for Joinder and any supporting materials included with it have been or are being communicated simultaneously to all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

27.8 HKIAC or the arbitral tribunal may vary any of the requirements in Article 27.6 and 27.7 as it deems appropriate.

27.9 An additional party wishing to be joined to the arbitration shall communicate a Request for Joinder to HKIAC, all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators. The provisions of Article 27.6 shall apply to such Request for Joinder.

27.10 Within 15 days of receiving a Request for Joinder, the parties shall communicate their comments on the Request for Joinder to HKIAC, all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators. Such comments may include (without limitation):

(a) any plea that the arbitral tribunal lacks jurisdiction over the additional party;

(b) comments on the particulars set forth in the Request for Joinder, pursuant to Article 27.6(a) to (g);

(c) answer to any relief or remedy sought in the Request for Joinder pursuant to Article 27.6(h);

(d) details of any claims against the additional party; and

(e) confirmation that copies of the comments have been or are being communicated simultaneously to all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

27.11 Where an additional party is joined to the arbitration, the arbitration against that additional party shall be deemed to commence on the date on which HKIAC or the arbitral tribunal once constituted, received the Request for Joinder.

27.12 Where an additional party is joined to the arbitration, all parties to the arbitration shall be deemed to have waived their right to designate an arbitrator.

27.13 Where an additional party is joined to the arbitration before the arbitral tribunal is constituted, HKIAC may revoke any confirmation or appointment of an arbitrator, and shall appoint the arbitral tribunal with or without regard to any party’s designation.

27.14 The revocation of the confirmation or appointment of an arbitrator pursuant to Article 27.13 is without prejudice to:

(a) the validity of any act done or order made by that arbitrator before his or her confirmation or appointment was revoked;

(b) his or her entitlement to be paid his or her fees and expenses subject to Schedule 2 or 3 as applicable; and

(c) the date when any claim or defence was raised for the purpose of applying any limitation bar or any similar rule or provision.

27.15 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal's fees (where appropriate) after a Request for Joinder has been submitted.


Article 28 – Consolidation of Arbitrations
28.1 HKIAC shall have the power, at the request of a party and after consulting with the parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators, to consolidate two or more arbitrations pending under these Rules where:

(a) the parties agree to consolidate; or

(b) all of the claims in the arbitrations are made under the same arbitration agreement; or

(c) the claims are made under more than one arbitration agreement, a common question of law or fact arises in all of the arbitrations, the rights to relief claimed are in respect of, or arise out of, the same transaction or a series of related transactions and the arbitration agreements are compatible.

28.2 Any party wishing to consolidate two or more arbitrations pursuant to Article 28.1 shall communicate a Request for Consolidation to HKIAC, all other parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators.

28.3 The Request for Consolidation shall include the following:

(a) the case references of the arbitrations pending under the Rules requested to be consolidated, where applicable;

(b) the names and addresses, facsimile numbers and/or email addresses of each of the parties to the arbitrations, their representatives and any arbitrators who have been confirmed or appointed in the arbitrations;

(c) a request that the arbitrations be consolidated;

(d) a copy of the arbitration agreement giving rise to the arbitrations;

(e) a copy of the contract (s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which the Request for Consolidation arises, or reference thereto;

(f) a description of the general nature of the claim and an indication of the amount involved, if any, in each of the arbitrations;

(g) a statement of the facts supporting the Request for Consolidation, including, where applicable, evidence of all parties’ written consent to consolidate the arbitrations;

(h) the points at issue;

(i) the legal arguments supporting the Request for Consolidation;

(j) details of any applicable mandatory provision affecting consolidation of arbitrations;

(k) comments on the constitution of the arbitral tribunal if the Request for Consolidation is granted, including whether to preserve the appointment of any arbitrators already designated or confirmed; and

(l) confirmation that copies of the Request for Consolidation and any supporting materials included with it have been or are being communicated simultaneously to all other relevant parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

28.4 HKIAC may vary any of the requirements in Article 28.3 as it deems appropriate.

28.5 Where the non-requesting parties or any confirmed or appointed arbitrators are requested to provide comments on the Request for Consolidation, such comments may include (without limitation) the following particulars:

(a) comments on the particulars set forth in the Request for Consolidation pursuant to Article 28.3(a) to (j);

(b) responses to the comments made in the Request for Consolidation pursuant to Article 28.3(k); and

(c) confirmation that copies of the comments have been or are being communicated simultaneously to all other relevant parties and any confirmed or appointed arbitrators, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

28.6 Where HKIAC decides to consolidate two or more arbitrations, the arbitrations shall be consolidated into the arbitration that commenced first, unless all parties agree or HKIAC decides otherwise taking into account the circumstances of the case. HKIAC shall communicate such decision to all parties and to any confirmed or appointed arbitrators in all arbitrations.

28.7 The consolidation of two or more arbitrations is without prejudice to the validity of any act done or order made by a competent authority in support of the relevant arbitration before it was consolidated.

28.8 Where HKIAC decides to consolidate two or more arbitrations, the parties to all such arbitrations shall be deemed to have waived their right to designate an arbitrator, and HKIAC may revoke any confirmation or appointment of an arbitrator. HKIAC shall appoint the arbitral tribunal in respect of the consolidated proceedings with or without regard to any party’s designation.

28.9 The revocation of the confirmation or appointment of an arbitrator pursuant to Article 28.8 is without prejudice to:

(a) the validity of any act done or order made by that arbitrator before his or her confirmation or appointment was revoked;

(b) his or her entitlement to be paid his or her fees and expenses subject to Schedule 2 or 3 as applicable; and

(c) the date when any claim or defence was raised for the purpose of applying any limitation bar or any similar rule or provision.

28.10 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal's fees (where appropriate) after a Request for Consolidation has been submitted.

Article 29 – Single Arbitration under Multiple Contracts
Claims arising out of or in connection with more than one contract may be made in a single arbitration, provided that:

(a) a common question of law or fact arises under each arbitration agreement giving rise to the arbitration; and

(b) the rights to relief claimed are in respect of, or arise out of, the same transaction or a series of related transactions; and

(c) the arbitration agreements under which those claims are made are compatible.


Article 30 – Concurrent Proceedings
30.1 The arbitral tribunal may, after consulting with the parties, conduct two or more arbitrations under the Rules at the same time, or one immediately after another, or suspend any of those arbitrations until after the determination of any other of them, where: 

(a) the same arbitral tribunal is constituted in each arbitration; and

(b) a common question of law or fact arises in all the arbitrations.

30.2 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal’s fees (where appropriate) where the arbitrations are conducted pursuant to Article 30.1.

Article 31 – Closure of Proceedings
31.1 When it is satisfied that the parties have had a reasonable opportunity to present their case, whether in relation to the entire proceedings or a discrete phase of the proceedings, the arbitral tribunal shall declare the proceedings or the relevant phase of the proceedings closed. Thereafter, no further submissions or arguments may be made, or evidence produced in respect of the entire proceedings or the discrete phase, as applicable, unless the arbitral tribunal reopens the proceedings or the relevant phase of the proceedings in accordance with Article 31.4.

31.2 Once the proceedings are declared closed, the arbitral tribunal shall inform HKIAC and the parties of the anticipated date by which an award will be communicated to the parties. The date of rendering the award shall be no later than three months from the date when the arbitral tribunal declares the entire proceedings or the relevant phase of the proceedings closed, as applicable. This time limit may be extended by agreement of the parties or, in appropriate circumstances, by HKIAC.

31.3 Article 31.2 shall not apply to any arbitration conducted pursuant to the Expedited Procedure under Article 42.

31.4 The arbitral tribunal may, if it considers it necessary, decide, on its own initiative or upon application of a party, to reopen the proceedings at any time before the award is made.

Article 32 – Waiver
32.1 A party that knows, or ought reasonably to know, that any provision of, or requirement arising under, these Rules (including the arbitration agreement) has not been complied with and yet proceeds with the arbitration without promptly stating its objection to such non-compliance, shall be deemed to have waived its right to object.

32.2 The parties waive any objection, on the basis of the use of any procedure under Articles 27, 28, 29, 30 or 43 and any decision made in respect of such procedure, to the validity and/or enforcement of any award made by the arbitral tribunal in the arbitration(s), in so far as such waiver can validly be made.